Selected publications

General, historical and evolutionary linguistics


  • to appear (2019). Carling Gerd. A Dictionary and Thesaurus of Tocharian A. Complete Edition. In collaboration with Georges-Jean Pinault. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (610p.).
  • to appear (2019). Carling, Gerd (ed.). CeDICT. Comprehensive e-Dictionary of Tocharian A. Lund University. By Gerd Carling in collaboration with Georges-Jean Pinault.
  • 2018. Carling, Gerd. Tocharian Syntax. In: Jared Klein, Brian Joseph & Mathias Fritz (eds.) Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. An International Handbook of Language Comparison and the Reconstruction of Indo-European. HSK 41. Berlin – New York: De Gruyter, 1352-1364.
  • 2013. Carling, Gerd (ed.). Tocharian A corpus (transcriptions, translations, references). Published via database CeTOM, Vienna University (ed. Melanie Malzahn).
  • 2012. Carling, Gerd. Development of form and function in a case system with layers: Tocharian and Romani compared. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 13, 57-76.
  • 2009. A Dictionary and Thesaurus of Tocharian A. Vol. 1 A-J. By Gerd Carling in Collaboration with Georges-Jean Pinault and Werner Winter. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (210p). Reviews: Journal of Asian History 45 (2011) (Jamsheed K. Choksky), Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher 24 (2010/2011) (Stefan Georg), Central Asiatic Journal 55 (2011) (Michael Knüppel), Kratylos 56 (2011) (M. Peyrot), Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 106 (2011) (Melanie Malzahn), Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 12 (2011) (Ilya Itkin), Religious Studies Review 36 (2010) (Stefan Baums).
  • 2008. Carling, Gerd. Reconsidering the system: verbal categorization and the coding of valency in Tocharian. In: Jens Elmegård Rasmussen & Thomas Olander (eds.) Internal Reconstruction in Indo-European. Methods, results and problems. Section Papers from the XVIth International Conference for Historical Linguistics, University of Copenhagen 11th-15th August, 2003. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 49-63.
  • 2007. Carling, Gerd. The vocabulary of Tocharian medical manuscripts. In: Vivienne Lo – Ronit Yoeli-Tlalim (ed.) Asian Medicine. Tradition and Modernity. Vol. 3 – No 2 2007. Leiden: Brill, 323-333.
  • 2006. Carling, Gerd. Notes on the syntactic functions of the Tocharian clitic pronouns. In: Gerd Carling (ed.) Giš.hurgul-za-at-ta-ra. A Festschrift for Folke Josephson on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday. Göteborg: Meijerbergs Arkiv för Svensk Ordforskning 32, 39-49.
  • 2005. Carling, Gerd. Proto-Tocharian, Common Tocharian, and Tocharian – on the value of linguistic connections in a reconstructed language. In: Jones-Bley, Karlene, Huld, Martin E., Volpe, Angela Vella,  Dexter, Miriam Robbins Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference. Journal of Indo-European Studies. Monograph Series 50, 47-70.
  • 2004. Carling, Gerd. Tocharian B erkatse [A *arkäts] and related phenomena. In: Adam Hyllested, Anders Richardt Jørgensen, Jenny Larsson, Thomas Olander (eds.) Per Aspera ad Asteriscos. Studea Indogermanica in honorem Jens Elmegård Rasmussen. Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft nr. 112, 95-101.
  • 2003. Carling, Gerd. Middle-passive and causative: valency-change in the Tocharian B -e-presents without initial palatalization. In: Georges-Jean Pinault, Brigitte Bauer (eds.) Language in Time and Space. A Festschrift for Werner Winter on the Occasion of his 80th Birthday. Berlin – New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 63-76.
  • 2003. Carling, Gerd. New look at the Tocharian B medical manuscript IOL Toch 306 (Stein Ch.00316.a2) of the British Library – Oriental and India Office Collections. Historical linguistics 116, 75-95.
  • 2003. Carling, Gerd. Fragments bilingues du Yogaśataka. Révision commentée de l’édition de Jean Filliozat. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 10, 37-68.
  • 2000. Carling, Gerd. Die Funktionen der Lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Reviews: Journal of the American Oriental Society 122.1 (2002) (H.C. Melchert), Incontri Linguistici 22 (2002) (R. Gusmani), Bulletin de la Société Linguistique XCVII:2 (2002) (G.-J. Pinault), General Linguistics 42 (2004) (Douglas Q. Adams), Kratylos 49 (2004) (Olav Hackstein).
  • 1999. Carling, Gerd. The Tocharian inflected adverbials and adpositions in relation to the case system. Tocharian and Indo European Studies 8, 95-110.
  • 1999. Carling, Gerd & Folke Josephson. PERLATIVE and INSTRUMENTAL in Sanskrit and Indo-European. In: Categorisation and Interpretation. Indological and comparative studies from an international Indological meeting at the Department of Comparative Philology, Göteborg University. Göteborg: Meijerbergs arkiv för svensk ordforskning 24, 77-105.

Romani chib

  • 2016. Carling, Gerd, Mikael Demetri, Angelina Dimiter-Taikon, Lenny Lindell, Allan Schwartz. Romer. 500 år i Sverige. Språk, kultur och identitet. [Roma. 500 Years in Sweden. Language, Culture, and Identity]. Linköping: Linköping University Press.
  • 2014. Carling, Gerd, Lenny Lindell and Gilbert Ambrazaitis. Scandoromani. Remnants of a Mixed Language. Leiden – Boston: Brill (Series Language, Cognition, and Culture) (295p.).  Review: Romani Studies 25 (2015) (Yaron Matras).
  • 2008. Lenny Lindell, Kenth Thorbjörnsson-Djerf† & Gerd Carling. Ordbok over svensk romani. Resandefolkets språk och sånger. Bearbetad och med inledning/ grammatik av Gerd Carling. Stockholm: Podium / Språkrådet. Review: Svenska Landsmål 2009 (Lars-Gunnar Larsson)
  • 2005. Carling, Gerd. Romani i svenskan. Storstadsslang och standardspråk. Stockholm: Carlssons.

South American linguistics

  • 2017. Carling, Gerd, Sandra Cronhamn, Elis Jarl Skute, and Wary Kamaiurá. Deixis in narrative. A study of Kamiurá, a Tupí-Guaraní language of Upper Xingú, Brazil. In Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada, 9(1), s. 13-48.
  • 2013. Carling, Gerd, Love Eriksen, Arthur Holmer & Joost van de Weijer. Implementing the matrix model: the method of contrasting linguistic and archaeological data by means of GIS and cluster analysis of the Arawakan language family. In: Anju Saxena & Lars Borin (eds.) Comparing Approaches to Measuring Linguistic Differences. Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Open Access Databases/ Language corpora

  • to appear. Carling, Gerd (ed.). CeDICT. Comprehensive e-Dictionary of Tocharian A. Lund University.
  • 2017. Carling, Gerd (ed.). DiACL - Diachronic Atlas of Comparative Linguistics Online. Lund University. Database with lexical and typological data from 500 languages of 17 families.,
  • 2013. Carling, Gerd (ed.). Tocharian A Corpus (transcriptions, translations, references). Published via database CeTOM, Vienna University (ed. Melanie Malzahn) (